Have I learned something about API Design?

Some years ago, somebody pointed me to Joshua Bloch’s excellent presentation about how to design APIs. If you haven’t watched it, go ahead and do that before reading on. To me, that presentation felt and still feels like it was full of those things where you can easily understand the theory but where the practice eludes you unless you – well, practice, I guess. Advice like “When in doubt, leave it out”, or “Keep APIs free of implementation details” is easy to understand as sentences, but harder to really understand in the sense of knowing how to apply it to a specific situation.

I’m right now working on making some code changes that were quite awkward, and awkward code is always an indication of a need to tweak the design a little. As a part of the awkwardness-triggered tweaking, I came up with an updated API that I was quite pleased with, and that made me think that maybe I’m starting to understand some of the points that were made in that presentation. I thought it would be interesting to revisit the presentation and see if I had assimilated some of his advice into actual work practice, so here’s my self-assessment of whether Måhlén understands Bloch.

First, the problem: the API I modified is used to generate the path part of URLs pointing to a specific category of pages on our web sites – Scorching, which means that a search for something to buy has been specific enough to land on a single product (not just any digital camera, but a Sony DSLR-A230L). The original API looks like this:

public interface ScorchingUrlHelper {
  @Deprecated
  String urlForSearchWithSort(Long categoryId, Product product, Integer sort);

  @Deprecated
  String urlForProductCompare(Long categoryId, Product product);

  @Deprecated
  String urlForProductCompare(String categoryAlias, Product product);

  @Deprecated
  String urlForProductCompare(Category category, Product product);

  @Deprecated
  String urlForProductCompare(Long categoryId, String title, Long id, String keyword);

  String urlForProductDetail(Long categoryId, Product product);
  String urlForProductDetail(String categoryAlias, Product product);
  String urlForProductDetail(Category category, Product product);
  String urlForProductDetail(Long categoryId, String title, Long id, String keyword);

  String urlForProductReview(Long categoryId, Product product);
  String urlForProductReview(String categoryAlias, Product product);
  String urlForProductReview(Category category, Product product);
  String urlForProductReview(Long categoryId, String title, Long id);

  String urlForProductReviewWrite(Long categoryId, String title, Long id);

  String urlForWINSReview(String categoryAlias, Product product);
  String urlForWINSReview(Category category, Product product);
  String urlForWINSReview(Long categoryId, String title, Long id, String keyword);
}

Just from looking at the code, it’s clear that the API has evolved over a period and has diverged a bit from its original use. There are some deprecated methods, and there are many ways of doing more or less the same things. For instance, you can get a URL part for a combination of product and category based on different kinds of information about the product or category.

The updated API – which feels really obvious in hindsight but actually took a fair amount of work – that I came up with is:

public interface ScorchingTargetHelper {
  Target targetForProductDetail(Product product, CtrPosition position);

  Target targetForProductReview(Product product, CtrPosition position);

  Target targetForProductReviewWrite(Product product, CtrPosition position);

  Target targetForWINSReview(Product product, CtrPosition position);
}

The reason I needed to change the code at all was to add information necessary for tracking click-through rates (CTR) to the generated URLs, so that’s why there is a new parameter in each method. Other than that, I’ve mostly removed things, which was precisely what I was hoping for.

Here are some of the rules from Josh’s presentation that I think I applied:

APIs should be easy to use and hard to misuse.

  • Since click tracking, once introduced, will be a core concern, it shouldn’t be possible to forget about adding it. Hence it was made a parameter in every method. People can probably still pass in garbage there, but at least everyone who wants to generate a scorching URL will have to take CTR into consideration.
  • Rather than @Deprecate-ing the deprecated methods, the new API is backwards-incompatible, making it far harder to misuse. @Deprecated doesn’t really mean anything, in my opinion. I like breaking things properly when I can, otherwise there’s a risk you don’t notice that something is broken.
  • All the information needed to generate one of these URLs is available if you have a properly initialised Product instance – it knows which Category it belongs to, and it knows about its title and id. So I removed the other parameters to make the API more concise and easier to use.

Names matter

  • The old class was called ScorchingUrlHelper, and each of its methods called urlForSomething(). But it didn’t create URLs, it created the path parts of URLs (no protocol, host or port parts – query parts are not needed/used for these URLs). The new version returns an (existing) internal representation of something for which a URL can be created called a Target, and the names of the class and methods reflect that.

When in doubt, leave it out

  • I removed a lot of ways to create Targets based on subsets of the data about products and categories. I’m not sure that that strictly means that I followed this piece of advice, it’s probably more a question of reducing code duplication and increasing API terseness. So instead of making the API implementation create Product instances based on three different kinds of inputs, that logic was extracted into a ProductBuilder, and something similar for Category objects. And I made use of the fact that a Product should already know which Category it belongs to.

Keep APIs free of implementation details

  • Another piece of advice that I don’t think I was following very successfully, but it wasn’t too bad. An intermediate version of the API took a CtrNode instead of a CtrPosition – the position in case is a tree hierarchy indicating where on the page the link appears, and a CtrNode object represents a node in the tree. But that is an implementation detail that shouldn’t really be exposed.

Provide programmatic access to all data available in string form

  • Rather than using a String as the return object, the Target was more suitable. This is really a fairly large part of the original awkwardness that triggered the refactoring.

Use the right data type for the job

  • I think I get points for this in two ways: using the Product object instead of various combinations of Longs and Strings, and for using the Target as a return type.

There’s a lot of Josh’s advice that I didn’t follow. Much of it relates to his recommendations on how to go about coming up with a good, solid version of the API. I was far less structured in how I went about it. A piece of advice that it could be argued that I went against is:

Don’t make the client do anything the library could do

  • I made the client responsible for instantiating the Product rather than allowing multiple similar calls taking different parameters. In this case, I think that avoiding duplication was the more important thing, and that maybe the library couldn’t/shouldn’t do that for the client. Or perhaps, “the library” shouldn’t be interpreted as just “the class in question”. I did add a new class to the library that helps clients instantiate their Products based on the same information as before.
  • I made the client go from Target to String to actually get at the path part of the URL. This was more of a special case – the old style ScorchingUrlHelper classes were actually instantiated per request, while I wanted something that could be potentially Singleton scoped. This meant that either I had to add request-specific information as a method parameter in the API (the current subdomain), or change to a Target as the return type and do the rest of the URL generation outside. It felt cleaner to leave that outside, leaving the ScorchingTargetHelper a more focused class with fewer responsibilities and collaborators.

So, in conclusion: do I think that I have actually understood the presentation on a deeper level than just the sentences? Well, when I went through the presentation to write this post, I was actually pleasantly surprised at the number of bullet points that I think I followed. I’m still not convinced, though. I think I still have a lot of things to learn, especially in terms of coming up with concise and flexible APIs that are right for a particular purpose. But at least, I think the new API is an improvement over the old one. And what’s more, writing this post by going back to that presentation and thinking about it in direct relationship to something I just did was a useful exercise. Maybe I learned a little more about API design by doing that!

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